Efficacy of FEES
Bastian R. Video endoscopic evaluation of patients with dysphagia: an adjunct to the modified barium swallow. Otolaryngol-Head & Neck Surg 1991; 104(3):339-50.
Crary, M.A., Baron, J. (1997) Endoscopic and Fluoroscopic Evaluations of Swallowing: Comparison of Observed and Inferred Findings. Dysphagia, 12(2).
Langmore, S.E., Schatz, K., & Olsen, N. (1991). Endoscopic and video fluoroscopic evaluations of swallowing and aspiration. Annals of Otalgia, Rhinology & Laryngology. 100(8), 678-681.
Mu, C.H., Hsiao, T.Y., Chen, J.C., Chang, Y.C., &Lee, S.Y. (1997). Evaluation of swallowing safety with fiberoptic endoscope: Comparison with video fluoroscopic technique. Laryngoscope, 107, 396-401.
Studies show there is good agreement between VFSS and FEES when examining premature spillage, pharyngeal residue, laryngeal penetration, and tracheal aspiration.
Literature Examining Safety of FEES
Aviv, J.E., Kaplan, S.T., Thompson, J.E., Spitzer, J., Diamond, B., Close, L.G. The safety of flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing: an analysis of 500 consecutive evaluations. Dysphagia. 2000;15:39-44.
Cohen, M.A., Setzen, M., Perlman, P.W., Ditkoff, M., Mattucci, K.F., Guss, J. The safety of flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing in an outpatient otolaryngology setting. Laryngoscope. 2003;113:21-24.
Aviv, J.E., Murray, T., Zschommler, A., Cohen, M., Gartner, C. Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing: patient characteristics and analysis of safety in 1340 consecutive examinations. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology. 2005;114:173-176.
“The concerns for patient safety described by a few are not borne out in carefully controlled studies of FEESST swallow safety. When FEESST is performed…by properly trained clinicians, the incidence of complications is practically nonexistent. –Aviv
Literature Addressing Patient Comfort and Anesthesia
Leder, S.B., Ross, D.A., Briskin, K.B., Sasaki, C.T. A prospective, double-blind, randomized study on the use of a topical anesthetic, vasoconstrictor, and placebo during transnasal flexible fiberoptic endoscopy. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research. 1997;40:1352-1357.
Singh, V., Brockbank, M.J., Todd, G.B. Flexible transnasal endoscopy: is local anesthetic necessary? Journal of Laryngology and Otology. July 1997;111:616-618.
Studies show there are no significant differences in patient comfort level regardless of use of anesthesia.